A woman checks her vegetable harvest near Bol, Chad (©Arno Trümper/adelphi)

Previously, disputes over natural resources like land and water were worked out at the interpersonal level, often facilitated by community leaders. But community governance mechanisms have stopped working during the conflict as community leaders may have become politicised, been killed, moved away, lost the trust of the community or have been overwhelmed by the numbers of people now living in the location.