A community leader holds a meeting on how to cope with the restricted livelihoods of the population in Bosso, in Niger’s Diffa Region. (©Arno Trümper/adelphi)

Weak governance was a core driver of the conflict. Strengthening governance requires support to provide quality social service delivery, tackle corruption and invest in the expansion of governance at local levels. Institutional development provides opportunities to be climate sensitive. For example, local planning processes can be used to facilitate the resolution of tensions around land allocation for housing and agriculture or livestock production and to reflect changes in demographics. Building in climate assessments that integrate analysis of conflict, gender and social exclusion dynamics into planning processes can serve as an early warning system to areas most at risk from climate change.